והערה לפני: נכון, יש מחקרים לכאן ולכאן, גם באפן כללי וגם ספציפית בנושאי בריאות ועוד יותר נושאי תזונה, וסביר שיש גם כמות רבה יחסית של בעלי אינטרסים מאחורי הרבה מחקרים בתחומים האלה. אז ברור שתוכל למצוא מחקר סותר, אבל מה זה מוכיח בעצם...? יש מספיק ובעצם המוני מחקרים שמדברים על העדיפות של תזונה צמחית על בשרית. חלקם מתייחסים לטבעונות מלאה, חלקם משווים בין אוכלי בשר לצמחונים או לתזונה שבה יש הפחתה של מזונות מהחי. לא נתקלתי באזהרות מפני תזונה צמחית מלאה (שוב, בטח אפשר לחפש ולמצוא מאמרים כאלה), אך די בקלות נתקלתי במחקרים שמזהירים ממזונות מהחי או ממליצים על הפחתה משמעותית עד מלאה שלהם (בעיקר בשר וחלב).טבעונות >>
כמה דוגמאות כאן שמצאתי בשליפה, וכן יש עוד המון. אלה מתייחסים בעיקר למחלות כרוניות כמו סרטן, מחלות לב, סכרת ותסמונת קרוהן.
אז כן, סביר שגם לצד השני, אך בסך הכל לדעתי אפשר לומר שיש הסכמה (במידה שאולי אפשר עוד להתווכח עליה) על המעלות של תזונה צמחית או של תזונה עם כמויות מופחתות של מזונות מהחי.
שם המאמר ורפרנס מלא מופיעים.
מצטערת, אבל באנגלית.
- Sabaté, J. (2003). The contribution of vegetarian diets to health and disease: a paradigm shift? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78, 5025–5075.
diets that are largely based on plant foods and contain no or very little meat, such as some vegetarian, Mediterranean, or Asian diets, are considered an adequate and optimal diet. Hence, they could best prevent both nutrient deficiencies and diet-related chronic diseases.
- Bernstein, A. M., Sun, Q., Hu, F. B., Stampfer, M. J., Manson, J. E., & Willett, W. C. (2010). Major dietary protein sources and risk of coronary heart disease in women. Circulation, 122, 876-883: the relation between Coronary Heart diseases (CHD) and foods that are accounted for major protein sources, through a 26-year follow-up study. Data regarding the participants’ diet was collected by questionnaire every 4 years. They found a significant association between higher consumption of processed and un-processed red meat (and high-fat dairy products) and an increased risk of CHD. Moreover, comparing between the effects of one serving per day of nuts versus red meat, the nuts were associated with a 30% lower risk of CHD.
- Micha, R., Wallace, S. K., & Mozaffarian, D. (2010). Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation, 121, 2271-2283 : A systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence for relationships between processed and un-processed red meat and total meat consumption with incident CHD, stroke, and diabetes mellitus. Their analysis included the total amount of cases from 1,218,380 individuals. They found an association between processed meat consumption and higher risks of both CHD (42% higher) and diabetes (19% higher), per 50-g serving per day. They also found a link between meat consumption and the risk for diabetes.
- Gramenzi Gramenzi, A., Gentile, A., Fasoli, M., Negri, E., Parazzini, F., & La Vecchia, C. (1990). Association between certain foods and risk of acute myocardial infarction in women. British Medical Journal, 300(6727), 771–773 : A 5-years case-control study to examine the relation between selected foods and acute myocardial infarction in women. Their study included participants from 30 hospitals with coronary care units in northern Italy and took place between 1983 and 1988. They found a direct association between the frequency of meat consumption and acute myocardial infarction. Women who consumed ham and salami more than twice a week had a significant 60% increased chance for a myocardial infarction.
- Sinha, R., Cross, A. J., Graubard, B. I., Leitzmann, M. F., & Schatzkin, A. (2010). Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people. Archives of Internal Medicine, 169(6), 562–571: association between meat consumption and an increased risk of CVD mortality. This study included a follow up of 10 years for 322,263 men and 223,390 women and showed an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality among women consuming high intakes of red and processed meats.
- Johnston C. (2009). Functional foods as modifiers of cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 3(1), 395-435: An effective dietary strategy for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease is to consume less arachidonic acid. This can be achieved by reducing the consumption of beef, poultry, fish, and eggs from the diet.
-Sieri, S., Krogh, V., Muti, P., Micheli, A., Pala, V., Crosignani, P., & Berrino, F. (2002). Fat and protein intake and subsequent breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Nutrition and Cancer, 42(1), 10-17: A study assessing the relation between diet and breast cancer. The study included a semi-quantitative self-administrated food questionnaire, completed by 4,053 healthy postmenopausal women, between the ages of 41–70 from Northern Italy. They found a significant positive correlation between total fat and animal protein and the risk of breast cancer, with the main sources of animal protein in this study being meat and cheese. They concluded that diet rich in animal protein and fat can be associated with increased breast cancer risk. Moreover, their international comparison of cancer occurrence and dietary habits suggested a relation between animal protein consumption and incidence and mortality rates for both breast cancer and other hormone-related cancers.
- Chao, A., Thun, M. J., Connell, C. J., McCullough, M. L., Jacobs, E. J., Flanders, W. D., … Calle, E. E. (2005). Meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer. Journal of the American Medical Associasion, 293(2), 172-182: A positive associations between the consumption of processed meat and a risk of distal colon cancer; high consumption of red meat and the risk of rectal cancer, and prolonged high consumption of red and processed meat and the risk of cancer in the distal portion of the large intestine. Their study included 148,610 adults of 50-74 years old who provided information on their meat consumption in 1982, 1992/1993 and 2001. Their distinction of red meat included various products such as bacon, sausage, hamburgers, meatloaf, beef, chicken liver, pork, hot dogs and salami and others.
- Fraser, G. E. (1999). Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 5325–5385:
Compared the extent of chronic diseases for different dietary patterns within the Seventh-day Adventist group. About 50 % of the participants in the study ate meat products once a week or not at all, and most Seventh-day Adventists do not smoke cigarettes or drink alcohol. The vegetarian diet in this study was not a low-fat diet; therefore the difference between the groups was in the type of fat that was consumed. Vegetarians were found to have lower risks of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, arthritis, colon cancer, prostate cancer, fatal IHD in males, and death from all causes. Colon cancer and prostate cancer were significantly more likely in non-vegetarians (88% and 54% greater, respectively), and it was both red and white meat consumption associated with the increased risk of colon cancer; a higher risk of bladder cancer was assigned to frequent beef consumers. On the other hand, higher consumption of fruits or dried fruits was associated with lower risks of lung, prostate, and pancreatic cancers, and the intake of legumes was negatively associated with risk of both colon and pancreatic cancer.
Also a significant associations between beef consumption and fatal ischemic heart disease (IHD) in men, as well as a 37% r