Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Dec 9. pii: ajcn120147. [Epub ahead of print]
Coffee and caffeine consumption and the risk of hypertension in postmenopausal women.
Rhee JJ1, Qin F2, Hedlin HK2, Chang TI3, Bird CE4, Zaslavsky O5, Manson JE6, Stefanick ML7, Winkelmayer WC8.
1Divisions of Nephrology and email@example.com
2Biomedical Informatics Research, Department of Medicine and.
3Divisions of Nephrology and.
4RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA;
5Faculty of Health Sciences and Social Welfare, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel;
6Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and.
7Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA;
8Selzman Institute for Kidney Health, Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.
The associations of coffee and caffeine intakes with the risk of incident hypertension remain controversial.
We sought to assess longitudinal relations of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and total caffeine intakes with mean blood pressure and incident hypertension in postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.
In a large prospective study, type and amount of coffee and total caffeine intakes were assessed by using self-reported questionnaires. Hypertension status was ascertained by using measured blood pressure and self-reported drug-treated hypertension. The mean intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine were 2-3 cups/d, 1 cup/d, and 196 mg/d, respectively. Using multivariable linear regression, we examined the associations of baseline intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine with measured systolic and diastolic blood pressures at annual visit 3 in 29,985 postmenopausal women who were not hypertensive at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and their 95% CIs for time to incident hypertension.
During 112,935 person-years of follow-up, 5566 cases of incident hypertension were reported. Neither caffeinated coffee nor caffeine intake was associated with mean systolic or diastolic blood pressure, but decaffeinated coffee intake was associated with a small but clinically irrelevant decrease in mean diastolic blood pressure. Decaffeinated coffee intake was not associated with mean systolic blood pressure. Intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine were not associated with the risk of incident hypertension (P-trend > 0.05 for all).
In summary, these findings suggest that caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine are not risk factors for hypertension in postmenopausal women.
© 2016 American Society for Nutrition.