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מוזיאון גטי וילה - גלרייה מספר 114 - חלק 2

ממשיך בגלרייה מספר 114 ובה אביא מוצגים אמנותיים נוספים המוצגים בה, את האינפורמציה הנילווית בחרתי להעלות באנגלית על מנת להישאר נאמן למקור.

 

הקליקו על התמונות להגדלה

 

 

Gallery #114

Dionysos and the Theater

 

 

 

Section : 3  The Retinue Of Dionysos

 

In literature and art, Dionysos (Bacchus to the Romans) is frequently accompanied by his mythical attendants, the part-man, part-horse satyrs; and by his human female worshippers, the maenads. The satyrs and the maenads together form the thiasos  (sacred retinue of Dionysos), which was often represented by artists and dramatists. Dionysos was also commonly depicted with his consort Ariadne and the woodland god Pan

 

Wine Cup with a Satyr and a Nymph

Greek, made in Athens, A.D. 500-490 B C

Terracotta

Red-figured kylix attributed to Onesimos as painter

 

The Greek vase-painter Onesimos excelled in the decoration of cups. On the example, a curious satyr clambers down a rocky outcrop to investigate a nymph sleeping beneath a wine-skin. Juxtaposing the bestial and the beautiful, the artist has inscribed the reason for the satyr's fascination: The girl is lovely

 

 

Left

Ladle with a Satyr and a Maenad

Greek, made in Athens, about 510 B.C

Terracotta

Black-figured kyathos attributed to the Group of Berlin 2009 as painter

On this ladle for serving wine, a satyr is shown chasing a maenad. She wears an animal's skin over her shoulders and holds krotala (castanets) in her left hand. The large eyes-- frequently painted on vessels associated with wine drinking-- are either protective talismans of clever references to the altered state induced by alcohol.

 

Right

Flask Shaped as the Head of Bacchus

Roman, A.D. 100-200

Glass

The crown of ivy leaves identifies this head as that of Bacchus. The god and his followers were often depicted with ivy, alluding to the deity's close association with wine and fertility. This flask was created by inflating molten glass into a mold, a technique frequently used in the Roman period to produced large quantities of identical vessels

 

 

 

Wine Cup with a Crouching Satyr

Greek, made in Athens, about 480 B.C

Terracotta

Red-figured kylix attributed to Makron as painter

 

To complete the image of a crouching satyr holding a skyphos (wine cup), the artist Makron used thick relief lines of blacjk gloss to define the contours of the figure and dilute gloss to sketch the musculature. Scholars believe that Makron was one of the most prominent craftsmen in Athens during the early fifth century B.C.; more of his work survives than that of any other vase painter

 

Statuette of a Kneeling Satyr

Greek, 480-460 B.C

Bronze

 

Figural sculpture during the first half of the fifth century B.C. was increasingly three-dimensional and dynamic, as exemplified by this lively statuette of a satyr. He rests on one knee and twists his torso as he raises a keras (drinking horn) to his lips. Used only for unmixed wine, the keras is an appropriate vessel for the untamed taste of a satyr

 

Bowl with Dionysos and Ariadne

Greek, from Asia Minor (present-day Turkey), 150-100 B.C

Silver and Gold

 

A youthful Dionysos and Ariadne are framed by grapevines and accompanied by a seated silen (an older satyr). Ariadne, a princess from Crete, became the god's consort after the Greek hero Theseus abandoned her on the island of Naxos. The detailed relief decoration and extensive gilding are indicative iof the taste of wealthy families for expensive metal tableware

 

Herm of Dionysos

Greek, from Asia Minor (present-day Turkey), 100-50 B.C

Bronze and Ivory

Attributed to the Workshop of Boethos of Kalchedon

 

Herms are pillars with attached heads and phalluses. They served as fertility emblems, boundary markers, and door guardians. The earliest examples bear the head of messenger god Hermes (hence their name ); but Dionysos, who was often worshipped as a fertility god, became eqially appropriate

This hern is vety similar to one signed by the sculptor Boethos of Kalchedon, which was discovered in an ancient shipwreck off the coast of Mahdia (in  present day Tunisia). The Mahdia herm and  this one have a comparable metal content, suggestion that they were manufactured in the same workshop

 

Sarcophagus with Scenes of Bacchus

Roman, A.D. 210-230, with nineteenth-century supports

Marble

 

Images of sleep and rebirth were frequently represented on Roman sarcophagi (coffins). Since the myths of Bacchus told of his death and resurrection, the god was often included in these depictions. Here Bacchus's consort Ariadne awakens from sleep as this retinue celebrates their union.

The Latin inscription identifies the girl for whom this sarcophagus was made as Maconiana Severiana, a member of a wealthy senatorial family. Ariadne's face was probably left unfinished to be completed as a portrait of Maconiana. The lion supports were added sometime after the discovery of the sarcophagus in Rome in 1873

 

 

Section 4  Tragedy and Comedy

 

Theater festivals were import ant civic and religious institutions in ancient Greek and Rome. Numerous theatrical scenes depicted on vases indicate the popularity of tragedy and comedy in the Greek colonies and Italic settlements of southern Italy and Sicily
Athenian tragedies by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides were restaged throughout the 300S B.C., inspiring South Italian vase painters to create innovative interpretations. Vessels and statuettes provide the only evidences for comic farces and parodies called phlyax plays, none of which survive in written form

 

Statuette of a Comic Actor

Greek, 200-100 B.C

Bronze

 

The wide-mouthed mask on  this comic figure represents the character of the plotting slave. He raises his hand to his chin and grins mischievously. The saggy laggings and dangling phallus are typical of costumes worn by actors in phlyax plays

 

Animal-Headed Figure

Roman, 100 B.C. - A.D. 100

Bronze

 

 

Statuettes of comic and tragic actors were popular among the Greeks and Romans, who also developed a genre of grotesque figurines that border on the theatrical. Roman comedies featured plots exposing th absurdities of daily domestic life. Stock characters, such as the irate father or the cunning slave, were reproduced in bronze and terracotta and often served ad votive offering in graves

 

Statuette of a Mime

Greek, made in Myrina (in present-day Turkey), about 100 B.C

Terracotta and pigment

 

With a declamatory gesture and an expressive scowl, this figure demonstrates the art of mime. A late development in ancient Greek performance, mime was usually comedic. Unlike stage actors, mimes did not wear masks. This figure's hairstyle and short costume are associated with Artemis goddess of the hunt

 

Statuette of a Comic Actor

Roman, A.D. 1-125

Bronze

 

Comic actors were often represented wearing a grinning mask and a bodysuit with a cross-hatched pattern. This bronze figure is especially irreverent; he bends over and points to his rear end while sticking two fingers in his mouth

 

Lamp with a Seated Comic Actor

Greek, made in Egypt, 125-100 B.C

Terracotta

 

Sculptural hanging lamps were popular in antiquity. Made from reddish clay, this example is decorated with a glossy red slip characteristic of lamps from Egypt. A cord for suspension should have been strung  through the hole at the top of the figure's head.

 

 

Lamp with a Reclining Comic Actor

Roman, A.D. 100-200

Terracotta and pigment

 

Shaped as a masked and costumed actor, reclining as if in drunken repose, this hanging lamp was filled with oil through an opening in the figure's back. A hole for suspension is located above the elbow, and burning wicks would have been placed at the feet and head. Such lamps were often mass-produced using molds and decorated with pigment

 

 

Statuette of a Comic Actor

Greek, made in Apulia, south Italy, 325-275 B.C

Terracotta

 

With his hand under his chin in a plotting gesture, this comic figure represents an actor in the role of the mischievous slave. The mask with a widely grinning mouth attached to a back-combed wig is typical of the character. His pose suggests that he has jumped into an altar to escape his angry master, a popular motif in Greek comedies

 

 

Storage Jar with a Scene from

The Oresteia

Greek, made in Paestum, south Italy, about 340 B.C

Terracotta

Red-figured neck amphora attributed to

 a painter close to Asteas

 

In this tragic scene from Aeschylus's Oresteia, Clytemnestra bares her breast in supplication to her son Orestes, who intends to kill her. At top right a vengeful Fury brandishes shakes to torment Orestes for his crime of matricide

 

Mixing Vessel with a Phlyax Scene

Greek, made in Apulia, south Italy, 370-360 B.C

Terracotta

Red-figured bell krater attributed to the Cotugno Painter

 

Padded costume and grotesque masks identify the figures on this vessel as phlyax actors. The scene may parody one of Zeus's amorous adventures, with the crowned man on the right representing the king of the gods and the old woman in the center his object of desire

 

Storage Jar with a Scene from

The Seven against Thebes

Greek, made in Campania, south Italy

about 340 B.C

Terracotta

Red-figured neck amphora attributed to

The Caivano Painter

 

A scene from the Greek tragedy The Seven against Thebes, by Aeschylus (525-456 B.C.), is painted on this vase. The hero Kapaneus scales the city walls to overthrow King Kreon, who looks down from the battlements. Details of wood grain and nails may have been inspired by an actual stage set

 

Mixing Vessel with Prometheus

Greek, made in Apulia, south Italy, 360-350 B.C

Terracotta

Gnathian bell krater attributed to the Konnakis Painter

The old man with a swollen belly and an oversize phallus is a grotesque parody of the tragic figure of Prometheus. Punished by the gods for revealing the secret of fire to mankind, Prometheus was condemned to have an eagle peck continuously at his liver. Here the eagle is farcically replaced by a curious crow

 

 

 

 

רשומה זו חותמת את המוצגים הבולטים בגלרייה מספר 214 ברשומה הבאה אעבור לגלרייה הבאה.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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