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פ.י.מ.פ.

(Analyzing Bowie: Diamond Dogs (album

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"Bowieeeeeeeeeeeeee…"

It is a frightening yell, a yell of desolation, a yell of longing, piercing through your heart once you start playing the album. But it is also a yell of defiance. After a year and a half of being Ziggy Stardust, Bowie breaks away, and reestablishes himself. And he does so with an album that reflects on the post-Ziggy world.

Bowie, of course, had always been reflective. His first four albums aspire to be a reflection of society, a mirror-image of the world around him. In his fifth album, he took what he learned from these reflections and created a character, Ziggy Stardust, who tried to create a better world, and succeeded for a while. But his next album, Aladdin Sane, saw Ziggy reflecting on himself, finding his beloved urban glam world crumbling around him. Now it is time for Bowie, after breaking away from Ziggy, to reflect upon the situation once again.

In July 1973, right after killing Ziggy, Bowie already began working on two new projects. One was the Pin Ups album, in which he went back to the rock`n`roll of the mid-sixties and ended up by asking: where have all the good times gone? So, reflection number one said: times have changed, and rock`n`roll isn`t what it used to be. The other project was an attempt to stage a musical version of George Orwell`s 1984, but this attempt was blocked by Orwell`s widow who was in charge of his estate. Bowie, in retaliation, went to one of his tried and tested weapons – punning – and staged a TV special called The Nineteen-Eighty Floor Show. The special included some of the songs he already written for the ditched 1984 project, as well as some of his Pin Ups and some of his earlier stuff. And these three strands - Orwell`s 1984, a reflection on the history of rock`n`roll, and a reflection on Bowie`s own career – would eventually come together to create Diamond Dogs.

How does 1984, a book published in 1949, figure with the history of Bowie and rock`n`roll? Orwell`s book was a warning against the rise of the communist state and the modern state in general. Communism taught people that they are being exploited by the bourgeoisie and that to be free they must give all the power to the communist party, which would use it to fight the bourgeoisie and slowly change society and make it equal. Orwell prophesized the future of humanity if this ideology takes over: by the year 1984, the party is in complete control. It keeps telling the people that it is saving them from the capitalistic bourgeoisie and that things are slowly getting better, but actually, things are only getting gradually worse for the common people and they are living a life of squalor and misery. However, nobody can do anything about it, because modern technology enables the party to keep a watchful eye on everybody`s actions at all times and any hint of insubordination would get one arrested. Furthermore, the party controls all information and indoctrinates the people to believe that their life is actually improving. The real aim of the party, as we find out in the end, is not to make life better for the people but to remain in power forever and find newer and better ways to exert its power by increasingly heightening the suffering of the people.

So what does that have to do with rock`n`roll? After all, the allure of communism was much diminished in the years that passed since 1949, and it didn`t look like Orwell`s prophecy for 1984 would materialize. Rather, it looked like the Western world is becoming more capitalistic, and after the sixties it seemed it would be evermore liberal in regards to personal freedoms. Why would Bowie drag Orwell back into this world, then? How does the fiction of 1984 reflect the reality of 1974? The number that opened the Nineteen-Eighty Floor Show will provide us a clue. Starting with `1984`, segueing into `Dodo` and then reprising `1984`, it is a number rather close in spirit to Orwell`s masterpiece and could be regarded as a look into what was on Bowie`s mind for the project before it morphed into Diamond Dogs. `1984` warns us of the world that is coming in 1984, and along with `Dodo` it depicts this world as one where the authorities have all the power and they keep the people sedated and brainwashed, eliminating anyone who doesn`t fall in line. This is very Orwellian, but it also contains references to drugs and movies, which connects it to the pop culture of the sixties. The hint is that the way of life of sex and drugs and rock`n`roll is not really freedom, but actually a form of control which we are subjected to, distracting us while the authorities are scheming to take over. We can assume that this is what the ditched 1984 project would have been about.

To get where Bowie is coming from, we should remember the spirit of the time. After the highly optimistic fifties and sixties things came crashing down in the seventies, as the world went into recession, energy crisis and heightened political tensions. This was reflected in the world of rock, which became stagnant, decadent and boring, and split into several tribes that had very little rapport with each other. In his album Aladdin Sane, Bowie toured the urban landscape of America, documented its deterioration and blended it with the crumbling of the glam culture he set into motion, ultimately making it an album about the disintegration of his own identity. In mid-1973, Bowie also got the chance to travel through the USSR and to realize that things over there were pretty much the same. Instead of marching towards the promised utopia, the world seemed to be sliding towards dystopia, and Orwell`s vision suddenly seemed probable. Add to that the fact that sixties rebellion took a Marxist, revolutionary turn, bringing back the talk about class-war against the bourgeoisie, and we can better understand why Bowie felt that rock`n`roll, and the role that he himself played in it, might end up leading towards a revolution that would produce an Orwellian state.

Around that time, by his own admission, Bowie began to take a deeper interest in the work of a writer who was already traveling that terrain for a while. William S. Burroughs used drugs to release his mind from the dogmas that society instilled in it, believing that the drugs gave him a heightened and clearer vision and exposed the truth. Naturally, his junky lifestyle resulted in many run-ins with the authorities and affected his perception of the world. The "truth" which he describes in his books exposes the world as a pyramid of power and need, which we are all enslaved to. His drug hallucinations take us to a place called Freeland Republic, a land that pretends to give its citizens complete freedom but actually controls them with a combination of induced addictions, psychological manipulations and control of information. It is, of course, an allegory for the "free" society which we live in, and the way it dominates our lives. The domination is so complete that we cannot resist it, since it determines all of our thought processes and behaviors as well. The way to break this domination is drug intake, which confuses our thought processes and takes us to a new domain of consciousness. But even if he reaches this new domain he would be unable to transfer it to us, since he is compelled to speak in language that belongs to the dominating order. Therefore, Burroughs invented a literary equivalent to drugs, a set of techniques he called cutups, aimed at breaking the linear motion of storytelling and creating a new type of reading experience, one that would force the readers to change their perception.

Bowie attested that he felt an immediate affinity. This technique of cutups, of chopping up existing material and rearranging it to create something new, was kind of like what he was doing up to that point, creating music by mixing together different foreign sources. He probably also identified with the idea that our freedoms are bogus and we are actually being manipulated, as it fit in nicely with what was brewing up in his mind at the time. The sci-fi world he describes in Diamond Dogs, populated by freak mutations, reminds us of the world described in Burroughs` drug fantasies. He also employed several cutup techniques in writing the songs, such as the insertion of one text into another (as in putting `Candidate` into `Sweet Thing` or `Dodo` into `1984`), or stringing together chopped up phrases as he does in `Future Legend`. Furthermore, as I will claim, it appears the cutups were used to create some of the images that appear on the album, which are made of words that don`t fit together and produce the required otherworldly feeling.

Those, then, are the four lines which I detect converging in the album: Orwell`s 1984, the writings of Burroughs, the history of rock`n`roll and Bowie`s own destiny. My hypothesis will be that the story takes place in the very near future, right after an imminent apocalypse (we can assume it is a nuclear holocaust, which causes the mutations). When the survivors emerge out of their oxygen tents, they immediately resume their old habits, and continue their lives as they do today. So this "future" world is actually an allegory to the world of today (1974, that is). However, the atomic bomb he drops on it serves the same purpose that Burroughs ascribed to drug intake: it strips away all the things about our world that serve as distractions and exposes the naked truth. In this new post-apocalyptic society, the only things that remain are the essential processes running our world, and by describing these essentials, Bowie purports to show us the reality of our own lives. We shall promptly see how the aforementioned four themes play in this reality.

Interpreting Diamond Dogs was a different experience than what I experienced when analyzing Bowie`s previous albums. This is the first album that has a preconceived narrative (Ziggy Stardust also has a (looser) narrative, but it comes from stringing separate records together), which the tracks are all subordinate to. This kind of operatic approach is usually bad for rock albums, but Bowie does manage to escape this predicament and the tracks can all stand alone as a whole artistic piece, not just a number in a sequence. Nevertheless, there is something weaker about them when you compare them with his previous efforts. Almost every track I analyzed from the preceding albums was always full of surprises and clues that pointed at external things, opening up new worlds. Like a Polish wanderer I traveled ever onward through them and found a vast land full of possibilities. I didn`t get that feeling from the tracks in Diamond Dogs. They all seem to belong only to the closed world of the album, and I didn`t find more than the influences I was already aware of. All those strange images - the seedy young knights, Tommy Tinkrem`s bed, virgin king, radar wing, baby bankrupt – which my Bowie-analyzing experience led me to expect would point to external influences, ended up not pointing anywhere. I can only conclude that they were created randomly, perhaps through cutups, and are aimed at giving the album its alien sci-fi feel. Interpreting these images is a subjective task, up to every listener`s own imagination, so I left them alone. However, there is still enough that merits a literary analysis, and to compensate for the deficiency in the tracks, the analysis of the album as a whole revealed itself to be more interesting and enjoyable than the previous ones. So, without further ado, let`s dive into the album.

The first thing we encounter is of course the cover. Bowie needed someone who would depict his vision and found the perfect candidate in the Belgian Guy Peellaert, who became famous at the time for painting cartoonish portraits of rock icons, portraying the emptiness and decadence that set into the rock world. In Peellaert`s style, Bowie found something that was very contemporary and pop-art and yet mirrored his own disgust of the contemporary pop world. The cover already puts us in the morbid atmosphere of Hunger City, a wasteland full of glammed mutations, fraught with a sense of danger.

A closer look reveals some more details of this world. We see many skyscrapers in the background, creating a contrast with the foggy wasteland the diamond dogs live in. We see that the dogs are on a stage, suggesting that they are performers, and the billboard announces that these are "The Strangest Living Curiosities" and promises "Rock `n…" well, we`ll have to see if this is rock`n`roll or something else. So we get a clue that these man-dog mutations will be rock performers somewhere along the story.

As always with Bowie, though, there are surprises. Consider this 19th century painting…

In The Caress, a famous painting by a Peellaert compatriot, the symbolist painter Fernand Khnopff, we see two figures: a young man, and a part-sphinx part-cheetah part-woman creature, an image symbolizing mystery, temptation and danger. They are caressing, which suggests that the man is embracing the mystery and risk of life. When we look at the two paintings above, it is easy to see the similarities between them, but as we look further we see the two figures in the bottom one merge together and become one in the Bowie-dog image on the top. Once again, like in every album cover since The Man Who Sold the World, Bowie provides us with a figure that is androgynous, mysterious and dangerous, a part-human-part-alien creature tempting us to come into his world.

Finally, there`s the `Bowie` emblem on top, which incorporates the signature lightening bolt from the previous album cover, hinting that this album connects to the urban nightmares depicted by Aladdin Sane. But for Aladdin, the lightening bolt seemed to be something external that is cracking his skull, while here, Bowie himself is the lightening bolt. The fact that it is just "Bowie", without David, is due to Bowie`s decision to adopt this single name as his new moniker. The cry of "Bowieeeeee" that opens the album might also be a way to introduce this new label, and it seems that in this album, Bowie sees himself merely as the storyteller, not a figure in the story. Indeed, unlike the days when he would make public appearances as Ziggy and turn him into a real-life persona, this time around he did not identify with any character. However, when he played it out on stage, he once again became identified with the hero of the story, and in time, his 1974 persona would come to be remembered by another name, a name he mentions in the album`s title track. Let us, then, assume that the tracks of the album all revolve around the same hero (although there`s actually very little in the tracks to corroborate this assumption), and call this hero Halloween Jack.

As the album begins, we are thrown into the world of Hunger City, which is, according to my aforementioned hypothesis, an allegory for the world we are living in after the sixties had come, been and gone. Did they make any difference? The Hippies claimed they did, and bragged that they made the world into a more free, equal and loving place. But the naked truth that Bowie exposes shows a different picture. If there is equality, it is that everyone feels their life to be equally miserable, but socially the world is as unequal as ever: the privileged ones are living in sterile skyscrapers, while the less fortunate dwell below in the nuclear shroud that turns them into mutants. It seems that there is freedom, but it is an empty kind of freedom: the peoploids can do whatever they want, but what they do has no meaning. We are, essentially, in Burroughs` Freeland: we seemingly have complete freedom, but this freedom is just another means of control. There are people who are sitting in the skyscrapers and manipulating us, ensuring that their hegemony is maintained.

One form of this manipulation is that they are offering us "sweet things", things that allegedly would give us joy but are actually just meant to sedate us. The youth is living in this false freedom, accepting all those sweet things, partying, screwing around, dressing-up and getting high, instead of finding something meaningful. What does Bowie consider meaningful? We know from his past albums that the answer is: finding something new, something that takes you to another world. In his 1967 record `There is a Happy Land`, Bowie sang of a place kids can go to, a magical garden of innocence that is not corrupted by the games of the adults. But there are no such alternative places anymore: if you try to go to the garden you will die, because all the gardens are now fogged with nuclear shroud. You must remain in the city and keep to the designated boardwalks, where you can always be under the watchful eye of the authorities in the skyscrapers. There is nothing new either, and all that you can do is rip and rewrap the old stuff, which gets gradually devalued in the process.

But there is still something real beneath it all. The things that are ripped and rewrapped are animal fur (presumably, those animals have become extinct) and precious stones (but only cracked ones – there are no immaculate stones anymore). But the core of some of the kids is a combination of a proud animal and the strongest precious stone, and it is pure and authentic, not something that has been ripped from something else and rewrapped in a different way. The diamond dogs (which, affected by the album cover, we imagine as actual dog/man mutation) are one of the tribes of peoploids roaming Hunger City, and they trail on a leash, but their heart still hears the call of the wild. However, since they have no outlets to express themselves in positive ways, they turn to violence and crime. Bowie may be commenting here on the violent youth gangs of the seventies (he actually said something to that effect in an interview), making them an essential part of our urban reality.

Halloween Jack is one of these diamond dogs, but he is searching for something better, something that would provide meaning and joy to his life. He looks for partners who feel the same way, candidates for spending the night with. But as we listen to him sing it, he becomes our candidate, who takes us on a journey through the underbelly of our world and shows us the truth about it. He takes us through the streets, describing all the despicable and meaningless things he had done in them. When we ask if there is an alternative, he takes us to a secluded bar, were anarchistic youth are plotting a revolution, spreading rumors and lies that are meant to destabilize the ruling order. But even that feels like just another "sweet thing", another manipulation, and the whole revolutionary dream feels like a vicious circle in which the rulers we want to overthrow today where those who sat in a bar yesterday and made similar plans. Leftist revolutionary thought was quite "in" in the early seventies, but Bowie describes it not as a hope for solution but as part of the problem. There seems to be no hope, then, and after being persuaded of that, Jack offers his partner a suicide pact as the only way out. They set out to fulfill that plan, but on their way they stop to buy some drugs and then get lost in the drug haze, forgetting about their original intention and remaining stuck in the quagmire of Hunger City.

That`s the world we find ourselves in at the beginning of the album. And in many ways, it is the materialization of the world that Aladdin Sane envisioned. We are in a future dystopia where the privileged ones are hiding in the dome and the unprivileged are left to their own devices (as in `Drive In Saturday`); where the individual roams through the urban landscape alienated and lonely, and the only human connection he can find are brief sexual encounters (`Aladdin Sane`, `The Jean Genie`); where it feels like all our glory was in the past and everything has now faded into meaninglessness and sadness (`Cracked Actor`, `Time`); where we party not out of joy but just to mask the reality of our existence (`Watch that Man`); and where revolutionary action has revealed itself to be pointless and the only outlet left for the rebellious impulse is mindless crime and violence (`Panic in Detroit`). In Aladdin Sane, the tracks were snapshots of contemporary America, and Bowie, traveling through it, was part of this world. Here, it is a fictional world and Bowie is just the storyteller, and yet, we sense that it is also about his own life. All this partying, promiscuity and drugs is what the rock`n`roll lifestyle was about in 1974, and those weird mutations and freaks could be a perfect allegory to the poseurs that filled the post-glam world. Rock`n`roll initially presented itself as bringing life to a dead and crooked world, promising the youth that this is not something that belongs to that world, but that "this is rock`n`roll!" Now, Bowie looks at what he and his cohorts have brought to the world, and concludes "this ain`t rock`n`roll, this is genocide!" It sounds like rock`n`roll, but instead of giving life, it is the harbinger of death.

But then, a new sound breaks through, calling us to "rebel rebel". Actually, there`s nothing new about it – it is just good old garage rock`n`roll. But it feels new, fresh and exciting, and Halloween Jack`s morose vocal is suddenly charged with new power and bursts with the energy of life. What is the cause of this drastic change? What differentiates this rock`n`roll from the meaningless "rock`n`roll" of the time? It is the difference between rebellion and revolution. Rock music used to be about rebellion, but in the late sixties it turned to revolution - it didn`t just want to present a way of life that was contrary to the existing order, but to overthrow the existing order and create a new order. And when it realized that any order is as bad as the other, it concluded that revolt is pointless. But Bowie reminds us that there was a time when revolt was done for the sake of revolt itself, for the fun of rebelling. And when you see rebellion as done for the sake of itself, you realize that there is always a way to rebel. There is always a way to rip and rewrap the existing stuff in a meaningful way, because the ruling order is always based on a certain way of categorizing things, so you can always mess up its categories. When you present yourself in a certain way that makes the adults unsure if you`re a boy or a girl, that makes them think that your face is a mess, you get the ruling order in a whirl. And when you cause such a whirl it gives you a thrill, and this thrill is enough to make your life worthwhile and meaningful.

It is Bowie`s old message: changing should be done for the sake of change itself, not for its eventual outcome. Rebelling is changing oneself into something that is contrary to the existing order, and the result is joy. And, as always, Bowie shows us that this change also brings other positive things to your life. `Rebel Rebel` and `Rock`n Roll With Me` are the two tracks which express what happens when our hero is still in the process of changing, and we see that his rebellion also gets him connected to others who feel the same way, so at last he manages to form deep and meaningful relationships and feel true love and passion. The diamond dogs now have a way to manifest their pure essence not in destructive but in creative ways, and their posing is no longer an empty gesture but an expression of identity and style. Halloween Jack becomes a rock`n`roll singer, and that gives him the ability to convey his deep emotions and create something of beauty.

Alas, after a while, the thrill begins to subside. This is something that Bowie has already discussed in Ziggy Stardust: the joy of rock`n`roll is temporary, and eventually, you reach the stage described in `Rock`n`roll Suicide`, the stage when the music doesn`t move you any more. Ziggy`s answer was: it doesn`t matter, because there is always a way to revive rock`n`roll, through making another change. Here, however, I think Bowie is taking a look at the history of rock`n`roll and realizing that although it was always revived, over time it had a dwindling effect on youth culture. Up until the late sixties, rock`n`roll changed at a rapid pace, always breaking out in new styles, providing new joys. But now, it seems like these outbreaks have become evermore scarce. Halloween Jack takes a step back to look at the process, to figure out why it is dwindling, and something hits him: while the kids are reeling and rocking, going round and round in this rock`n`roll wheel, believing it will just last forever, their rebellion is being exploited by outside sources. And here is where his mind switches from Burroughs to Orwell, to a story of rebels who find out eventually that they were only doing the bidding of the authorities. In the beginning of the album, we thought we were in a Burroughs kind if reality, where the powers are happy to control us from afar while allowing us to believe that we are free. But now, we realize that this was just a temporary state, and the powers are planning a different kind of control. In the three consecutive Orwellian titles that follow (`We are the Dead`, `1984` and `Big Brother`), the powers gradually reveal themselves and we learn what they are really after: complete totalitarian domination. Just like the protagonist in `Cygnet Committee`, Halloween Jack realizes that his cry for freedom has been subverted and used to create oppression. And if we take this album not just as some imaginary science fiction tale but as Bowie`s statement about the state of youth culture, then what he is saying is that the rock`n`roll which he and his generation brought to the world will end up helping the powers that they thought they were fighting. In the future, the people who will live under the oppression will hold us to blame for it.

But it`s not just "the powers" working behind the scenes that will bring about this state. Bowie is putting the blame on Western culture in general. Because while Halloween Jack understands that rebellion should be done for its own sake, the majority of humanity still thinks in old terms, still believes that joy is the result of connecting to some eternal truth. And so, when they are presented with the joy of rock`n`roll, the peoploids of Hunger City believe that they have found the answer to eternal joy and that in order to be happy for ever they simply need to build a society based on the tenets of rock`n`roll. To say it in the imagery of the album: since the joy came from getting the older generation "in a whirl", they believe that capturing and maintaining this whirl would ensure eternal joy, so they build a "better whirlpool", and pledge their allegiance to it. And once they do, they accept that there is only one order that represents the truth, and allow the powers to become totalitarian. And thus, by the end of the album, they become automatons, forever circling in the whirlpool they created, with no power to make a change in their life and thus with no ability to experience joy.

Finally, there is one more thing that Bowie holds to blame. Who is the "Big Brother", the dictator which the people call for in the end? I believe it is none other than Halloween Jack, their rock`n`roll hero. He gave them joy through his music, and they believe that if they subordinate themselves to him this joy will be eternal. But why would Jack, who stood for freedom and warned us against this end, agree to accept this role? If we consider what Bowie said in interviews at the time, it starts to make more sense. Bowie spoke of his experience during the Ziggy era, how it gave him firsthand knowledge on the way people idolize their rock stars, the way they identify with them to the point where they lose their own individuality, and furthermore, of what it does to the star himself, how he can be overtaken by this sense of power. The thing that is to blame here, then, is human nature itself. Humanity will never be able to create a free and equal society, because people by nature want to rule or be ruled and that`s what any revolution will eventually gravitate towards. "Beware the savage jaw of 1984" he warns us – the word "jaw" hints that this end would come from the nature of the diamond dogs themselves, that the same essence which drove them to rebel would ultimately lead them to revolution and oppression.  

Diamond Dogs, then, is David Bowie putting a mirror in front of himself and taking a look at where he`s heading, where his generation is heading and where the world is heading. His conclusion: rebellion is too dangerous, because most people are still enslaved to revolutionary thought, so any rebellion can be exploited by the powers to get more power. If things keep going the same way, then by 1984 we will end up fulfilling Orwell`s prophecy. Disguised as a future legend, it is a personal statement about the reality of the present.

It is very personal statement on the musical level as well. For the first time, Bowie takes over the role of producer, assuming full control over the final product. The legend that he also played all the instruments is apocryphal, and we can hear Mike Garson`s distinctive piano adding its touches of beauty and darkness, but the conceptual heart of the music is constructed and played by Bowie, built from layers of guitars, synthesizers and saxes, and it tells a story of its own. It is a battle between the bluesy saxophones, signifying the spirit of man wallowing in sadness; the garage guitars, ringing out the call of freedom and joy; and the synthesizers, symbolizing the cold mechanical world of the oppressive system. "This ain`t rock`n`roll, this is genocide!" he warns us at the beginning. By the end of the album, when the rock`n`roll is erased by the repetitive drone of `Chant of the Ever-Circling Skeletal Family`, we catch the drift.

Future Legend
Diamond Dogs
Sweet Thing, Candidate, Sweet Thing (Reprise)
Rebel Rebel
Rock`n Roll With Me
We are the Dead
1984
Big Brother
Chant of the Ever-Circling Skeletal Family

The album, then, carries an extremely dark and pessimistic message, especially when you consider that just a couple of years earlier Bowie was regarding rock`n`roll in religious terms as the salvation of human kind. Bowie`s disenchantment with rock`n`roll came through in interviews he made at the time, and he spoke of it in terms of a corpse. Rock`n`roll became a dead-end street, and as we know, when Bowie hits a dead-end street, it`s time to do some ch-ch-ch-changing. His following albums would show him veering away from rock music, and looking for other types of musical mixes.

But within this pessimistic cloud, there is also a ray of hope. There is a hidden message here, a message that says that rock`n`roll doesn`t have to be a dead-end street, if it only cleans itself from revolutionary thought and realizes that rebellion is where it`s at. Revolution is death, rebellion is life. The conclusion of Diamond Dogs is that most people still think in revolutionary terms, and as long as this is the case, we are the dead. But as it turned out, Bowie was too pessimistic, because the core of rock`n`roll is rebellion, not revolution, and that core won in the end, shaking off the revolutionary trend that leeched onto it in the late sixties. Just as Bowie was lamenting rock`n`roll, punk hatched in New York, and the spirit of punk would be that of rebellion. Never mind the future, said the punks, what is important is to rebel and have fun in the now. It is a message that since then has been embedded deep in pop consciousness, and pretty much banished revolutionary thought from the Western mind. We are not the dead.

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